In addition to developing vocabulary, students need explicit instruction in the ways that words connect to other words, phrases, and concepts; new words must be learned and applied alongside the language structures within which they appear Nagy and Townsend, With opportunities to read, write, say, and hear language that varies in form and function across contexts, students can internalize syntactic knowledge skills. To teach syntax skills, educators can use the following strategies:. When discussing texts, coach students through the meaning of sentences that require careful interpretation, especially those that require connections or inferences about multiple ideas.
Provide students with sentence frames that chunk complex sentences into meaningful phrases and demonstrate how changes in word choice and order affect meaning, subject-verb agreement, and pronoun usage. Enhance lessons and conversations using academic language with pictures, video, and other multimedia to help students with language weaknesses connect definition and function to concepts and their current background knowledge.
Although this instruction is particularly critical for struggling readers and English Language Learners, all students will benefit from targeted instruction in the words, phrases, and forms that constitute academic texts and discussions. Baker, S. Teaching academic content and literacy to English learners in elementary and middle school NCEE Department of Education. Bowers, P.
Comparative Grammar and Transfer
Effects of morphological instruction on vocabulary acquisition. Reading and Writing, 23 5 , Corson, D. The learning and use of academic English words.
Language Learning, 47 , Foorman, B. Examining general and specific factors in the dimensionality of oral language and reading in 4thth grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 3 , Nagy, W.
How many words are there in printed school English? Reading Research Quarterly, 19 , — Words as tools: Learning academic vocabulary as language acquisition.
Sample exam question and answer
Reading Research Quarterly, 47 , He ate a mango. She goes to college. They are laughing. Compound Sentence. Independent clauses are also sometime connected by a semicolon ; mark.
PSLE English | Synthesis Revision: 7 Tricky Sentence Structures
A comma may not or may be used before a conjunction in a compound sentence. I told him about his failure in the exam and he became sad. She failed many times yet she is not disappointed. I needed help ; he helped me.
Complex Sentence. In the following examples, the underlined part of each sentence is a main clause while the remaining part is a subordinate dependent clause. If the complex sentence starts with the independent or main clause, a comma will not be used between clauses in the complex sentence. The following are the chief ways of combining two or more Simple Sentences into one Simple Sentence. He ran away.
He sat down to rest. He was appointed as the English teacher in the school. His name is Rama.
It is one of the most attractive places in England. It is one of the greatest religions. Here you may find the Synthesis of Sentences into a simple sentence. Their journey was not ended. He still hopes to win. She heard the news.
Related A Synthesis of English Language Structure
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