Thus, we speculate that the impaired proportion of memory T cells at birth could be a contributing factor to the early postnatal period first 4 months being a particularly vulnerable period with regard to increased risk of infections [ 14 ]. We found that associations with cadmium and arsenic and T helper memory cells differed by gender, with strongest associations in females for both arsenic and cadmium. An in vitro model suggests that female cord blood cells, in particular, are more sensitive than those of males to arsenic-induced telomerase stimulation at sub micro-molar concentrations possibly due to the increased expression of ras and myc oncogenes [ 28 ].
Neonatal cadmium exposure in rats through maternal milk showed decreased proliferation of lymphocytes in female rats, but not male rats [ 30 ].
As expected, the proportion of activated Th cells 0. In humans at birth, circulating T cells are in general functionally immature [ 37 ]. On the other hand, it has been shown that maternal transfer of T cells occurs [ 38 ]. It is likely that the arsenic exposures have also affected the maternal pool of T cells, since arsenic-related immune effects increased infections are seen for both mother and child [ 39 ]. The putative impact on immunosuppression by the observed impairment of Th memory cells early in life is, however, irrespective of maternal or fetal origin of the cells.
Our study has certain limitations. Our sample size is relatively small; however, the power of our analysis shows trends for differences in the immune system, despite relatively low levels of exposure to arsenic and cadmium. Toenail analysis can be susceptible to external contamination, however we minimized this possibility through carefully washing.
The results suggest that prenatal exposures to relatively low levels of arsenic and cadmium may contribute to altered distribution of T cell subpopulations, specifically memory cells and activated memory cells, at birth and offers a potential mechanism by which these contaminants may increase risk of infections later in childhood. Browse Subject Areas?
T Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Immunotoxicology - ScienceDirect
Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Background Arsenic and cadmium are environmental pollutants, and although the evidence for adverse immune effects after prenatal arsenic and cadmium exposures is increasing, little is known about the underlying immunological mechanisms.
Methods We investigated the relationship between prenatal arsenic and cadmium exposures and a variety of T cell subpopulations measured in cord blood for 63 participants in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study. Conclusion The results suggest that prenatal exposures to relatively low levels of arsenic and cadmium may contribute to altered distribution of T cell populations at birth.
Introduction Inorganic arsenic and cadmium are ranked at first and seventh, respectively, by the Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry in the priority list of hazardous substances in the United States [ 1 ]. Study population To be eligible for the NHBCS, women were: a currently pregnant, b 18 to 45 years old, c receiving routine prenatal care at one of the study clinics, d living at residence served by a private water system e.
Cord blood sample collection and measurements The study provided hospital delivery rooms with cord blood collection kits and a list of enrolled women with their expected delivery dates. Exposure assessment of postpartum toenail arsenic and cadmium levels At two weeks post-partum, participants received an information packet requesting maternal toenail clippings within eight weeks of birth, a timing which was consistent with other studies [ 16 , 17 ]. Immune cell phenotyping in cord blood Peripheral blood mononuclear cell PBMC samples from cord blood for 63 participants were shipped on dry ice overnight to the Human Immune Monitoring Center at Stanford University, and stored in liquid nitrogen until analyses.
Statistical methods Descriptive statistics including mean, standard deviation, median, interquartile range IQR and range were presented for individual T cell subsets and other covariates. Results Study population For this study, we selected 83 women enrolled between February 28, and April 15, on whom we collected a urine sample at study entry, a cord blood sample at delivery, and a stool sample from their infant at 6 weeks of age for subsequent microbiome analysis. Download: PPT. Table 1.
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Table 2. Table 3.
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Table 4. Relationship between T cell subsets and participant characterizations To investigate whether the immune cell subset profiles were related to characteristics like maternal age, maternal smoking, parity, birth weight, gender, maternal BMI, gestational age, postpartum toenail arsenic and postpartum toenail cadmium, we compared these variables across the four K-means clusters identified above.
Table 5. Table 6. Discussion Both arsenic and cadmium have been shown to exert complex effects on immune cells. Conclusion The results suggest that prenatal exposures to relatively low levels of arsenic and cadmium may contribute to altered distribution of T cell subpopulations, specifically memory cells and activated memory cells, at birth and offers a potential mechanism by which these contaminants may increase risk of infections later in childhood. Supporting information. S1 File. Raw data. References 1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
Priority list of hazardous substances Atlanta.
7. Opportunities for in Vitro Assessment of Immunotoxicity
World Health Organization. Guidelines for drinking-water quality, fourth edition. Arsenic and human health effects: A review. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. Jarup L, Akesson A. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. Effect of cadmium body burden on immune response of school children. Arch Environ Health. Impaired resistance to Listeria monocytogenes in mice chronically exposed to cadmium. Cadmium exposure and the epigenome: Exposure-associated patterns of DNA methylation in leukocytes from mother-baby pairs. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response.
Curr Environ Health Rep. PLoS Genet. Prenatal arsenic exposure and the epigenome: altered microRNAs associated with innate and adaptive immune signaling in newborn cord blood. Environ Mol Mutagen. Arsenic immunotoxicity: a review. Environ Health.
Public International Law This module also deals with the role of the UN and other international organisations and, in the fields of human rights and international criminal law, the rights. The effects of gestational Mg or Zn deficiency on the humoral or cellular immunity of newborn rats were investigated.
Mg deficiency was induced by feeding a diet containing ppm Mg from day 0 to day 21 of gestation and Zn deficiency was induced by feeding a diet containing 1.
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Controls were fed a diet with 1, ppm Mg and ppm Zn from day 0 to day Thereafter, all maternal rats and newborns were fed diets with normal amounts of Mg or Zn. Three and six weeks after birth, T-cell subpopulations in blood and thymus and B-cells in blood of the newborns were detected by flow cytometry.
Mg deficiency reduced litter size and pup weight.
B Paige Lawrence, Ph.D.
Three weeks after birth, the total number of leukocytes and lymphocytes in blood was significantly decreased, due to a reduction of T-helper and cytotoxic T-cells. Activated T-cells and B-cells were unchanged. Six weeks after birth, T-cell subpopulations approached controls values, whereas IgG content in plasma was slightly reduced. Gestational Zn deficiency reduced litter size and induced malformations.
Three and six weeks after birth, body weight, number of leukocytes, lymphocyte, and T-cell subpopulations were not significantly changed. These effects were repaired by the sixth week. Plasma IgG was reduced at 6 weeks. No effects on T-cell subpopulations in isolated thymocytes were detected after gestational Mg or Zn deficiency. No effects on T-cell subpopulations in isolated thymocytes were detected after gestational Mg. The oral dose for the rat is converted to the corresponding air concentration using a standard breathing volume for the rat 1.
Related T Lymphocytes Subpopulations in Immunotoxicology
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