Feminist Perspectives on Sex and Gender (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
In one early skirmish, in , the West Coast Lesbian Conference, in Los Angeles, furiously split over a scheduled performance by the folksinger Beth Elliott, who is what was then called a transsexual. Robin Morgan, the keynote speaker, said:. Such views are shared by few feminists now, but they still have a foothold among some self-described radical feminists, who have found themselves in an acrimonious battle with trans people and their allies. In this view, gender is less an identity than a caste position. Anyone born a man retains male privilege in society; even if he chooses to live as a woman—and accept a correspondingly subordinate social position—the fact that he has a choice means that he can never understand what being a woman is really like.
By extension, when trans women demand to be accepted as women they are simply exercising another form of male entitlement. All this enrages trans women and their allies, who point to the discrimination that trans people endure; although radical feminism is far from achieving all its goals, women have won far more formal equality than trans people have. A recent survey by the National Center for Transgender Equality and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force found overwhelming levels of anti-trans violence and persecution.
Forty-one per cent of respondents said that they had attempted suicide. It includes not just the small number of people who seek gender-reassignment surgery—according to frequently cited estimates, about one in thirty thousand men and one in a hundred thousand women—but also those who take hormones, or who simply identify with the opposite gender, or, in some cases, with both or with neither. According to the National Center survey, most trans women have taken female hormones, but only about a quarter of them have had genital surgery.
Having rejected this supposition, radical feminists now find themselves in a position that few would have imagined when the conflict began: shunned as reactionaries on the wrong side of a sexual-rights issue. It is, to them, a baffling political inversion. Radfems Respond was originally to have taken place across town from the library, at a Quaker meeting house, but trans activists had launched a petition on Change. Radfem also had to switch locations, as did a gathering in Toronto last year, called Radfems Rise Up.
We questioned the library administration about allowing a hate group who promotes discrimination and their response is that they cannot kick them out because of freedom of speech. Abusive posts proliferated on Twitter and, especially, Tumblr. She is forty-nine, with cropped pewter hair and a uniform of black T-shirts and jeans. Three years ago, she co-founded the ecofeminist group Deep Green Resistance, which has some two hundred members and links the oppression of women to the pillaging of the planet. In radical circles, though, what makes the group truly controversial is its stance on gender.
As members see it, a person born with male privilege can no more shed it through surgery than a white person can claim an African-American identity simply by darkening his or her skin. Before D.
Last February, Keith was to be a keynote speaker at the Public Interest Environmental Law Conference, at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, but the student government voted to condemn her, and more than a thousand people signed a petition demanding that the address be cancelled. Amid threats of violence, six policemen escorted Keith to the lectern, though, in the end, the protest proved peaceful: some audience members walked out and held a rally, leaving her to speak to a half-empty room. Keith had an easier time at Radfems Respond, where she spoke on the differences between radicalism and liberalism.
Two gender-bending punk kids who looked as if they might be there to protest left during the long opening session, on prostitution. Several trans women arrived and sat at the back, but, in fact, they were there to express solidarity, having decided that the attacks on radical feminists were both out of control and misguided.
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Despite that surprising show of support, most of the speakers felt embattled. Heath Atom Russell gave the closing talk. Expert estimates of the number of transitioners who abandon their new gender range from fewer than one per cent to as many as five per cent. On the other hand, historians' focus on oppression revealed that investigating the structures of women's lives was crucial.
In recent years, while not denying the history of oppression, historians have begun to focus on the agency of women. All human beings are subject to some degree of social forces that limit freedom, but within those limits people are able to exercise greater or lesser degrees of control over their own lives. This insight applies equally to women even in oppressive societies. These various approaches to the history of women are not exclusive. This sourcebook attempts to present online documents and secondary discussions which reflect the various ways of looking at the history of women within broadly defined historical periods and areas.
This page is a subset of texts derived from the three major online Sourcebooks listed below. The Cult of the Virgin Mary. Latin America. Women Writers. Gender Construction. Gender and Sexualities in Modern Africa. The Islamic World. The Library dwindled during the Roman Period, due to lack of funding and support. Its membership appears to have ceased by the s AD.
Between and AD, the city of Alexandria saw a rebellion and an imperial counterattack that probably destroyed whatever remained of the Library, if it still existed at that time.
The daughter library of the Serapeum may have survived after the main Library's destruction. The Serapeum was vandalized and demolished in AD under a decree issued by Coptic Christian Pope Theophilus of Alexandria , but it does not seem to have housed books at the time and was mainly used as a gathering place for Neoplatonist philosophers following the teachings of Iamblichus.
The Library of Alexandria was not the first library of its kind. The Macedonian kings who succeeded Alexander the Great as rulers of the Near East wanted to promote Hellenistic culture and learning throughout the known world. The Library was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world , but details about it are a mixture of history and legend. Modern scholars agree that, while it is possible that Ptolemy I may have laid the groundwork for the Library, it probably did not come into being as a physical institution until the reign of Ptolemy II.
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Tracy, however, argues that it is highly probable that Demetrius played an important role in collecting at least some of the earliest texts that would later become part of the Library's collection. According to popular description, an inscription above the shelves read: "The place of the cure of the soul. The Ptolemaic rulers intended the Library to be a collection of all knowledge  and they worked to expand the Library's collections through an aggressive and well-funded policy of book purchasing.https://radisforisnei.tk
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In addition to collecting works from the past, the Mouseion which housed the Library also served as home to a host of international scholars, poets, philosophers, and researchers, who, according to the first-century BC Greek geographer Strabo , were provided with a large salary, free food and lodging, and exemption from taxes. The Library of Alexandria was not affiliated with any particular philosophical school and, consequently, scholars who studied there had considerable academic freedom.
The first recorded head librarian was Zenodotus of Ephesus lived c. Meanwhile, the scholar and poet Callimachus compiled the Pinakes , a book catalogue of various authors and all their known works. According to legend, during the librarianship of Apollonius, the mathematician and inventor Archimedes lived c. According to two late and largely unreliable biographies, Apollonius was forced to resign from his position as head librarian and moved to the island of Rhodes after which he takes his name on account of the hostile reception he received in Alexandria to the first draft of his Argonautica.
The third head librarian, Eratosthenes of Cyrene lived c. Eratosthenes was the first person to advance geography towards becoming a scientific discipline. This detail arises from the fact that Alexandria was a man-made bidirectional port between the mainland and the Pharos island, welcoming trade from the East and West, and soon found itself to be an international hub for trade, the leading producer of papyrus and, soon enough, books. Aristophanes of Byzantium lived c. The librarianship of Aristophanes of Byzantium is widely considered to have opened a more mature phase of the Library of Alexandria's history.
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During the early second century BC, several scholars at the Library of Alexandria studied works on medicine. Aristarchus of Samothrace lived c. Meanwhile, in Alexandria, from the middle of the second century BC onwards, Ptolemaic rule in Egypt grew less stable than it had been previously. A shift in Greek scholarship at large occurred around the beginning of the first century BC.
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His soldiers set fire to his own ships while trying to clear the wharves to block the fleet belonging to Cleopatra 's brother Ptolemy XIV. Scholars have interpreted Cassius Dio's wording to indicate that the fire did not actually destroy the entire Library itself, but rather only a warehouse located near the docks being used by the Library to house scrolls.
Watts argues that Mark Antony's gift may have been intended to replenish the Library's collection after the damage to it caused by Caesar's fire roughly a decade and a half prior. The same was evidently the case even for the position of head librarian;  the only known head librarian from the Roman Period was a man named Tiberius Claudius Balbilus , who lived in the middle of the first century AD and was a politician, administrator, and military officer with no record of substantial scholarly achievements.
Meanwhile, as the reputation of Alexandrian scholarship declined, the reputations of other libraries across the Mediterranean world improved, diminishing the Library of Alexandria's former status as the most prominent. By the second century AD, the Roman Empire grew less dependent on grain from Alexandria and the city's prominence declined further.
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