From on, Torquemada used this efficient police instrument to investigate and punish crypto-Jews, apostates, witches, and other spiritual offenders on an unprecedented scale; approximately 2, people were executed and vast numbers otherwise punished. Complaints to the Pope were ineffective since Isabella and Ferdinand supported Torquemada.
Exceptionally intolerant even for his times, Torquemada publicized an alleged ritual murder at La Guardia to encourage the expulsion of the Jews and tried far more suspects than any of his successors. But even though his successors reduced actual arrests, the spiritual police system Torquemada had organized effectively guarded Spanish thought throughout succeeding generations. Bibliography: f. New York — Madrid Madrid — For twenty-two years he was prior of the Dominican convent of Santa Cruz at Segovia. In he was appointed confessor to Queen Isabella I of Castile, and later he performed the same service, nominally at least, for King Ferdinand V of Aragon.
By a brief of February 11, , Pope Sixtus IV named Torquemada, along with ten other Dominicans, to replace former officers of the Spanish Inquisition who had been charged with corrupt practices. These were published in Torquemada, though himself descended from Jewish forebears, was particularly harsh in carrying out the mandate of the Inquisition against crypto-Jews Marranos , Jews who continued to practice Judaism in secret after their forced conversion to Christianity.
In he supported, and perhaps promoted, the expulsion of the Jews from the newly united Spain. Complaints about his severity moved Pope Alexander VI in to add four colleagues to his judicial bench, but as early as the next year they were accused of financial misconduct, and there was no discernible change in the Inquisition's practices after Torquemada's retirement or even after his death. Torquemada became, and has remained, the personification of religious intolerance at its worst. It is believed that as many as two thousand people were burned to death under his regime, and many thousands of others suffered imprisonment, confiscation of their property, and various other forms of harassment and indignity.
Papal efforts to moderate the inquisitorial zeal in Spain were usually ineffectual, because the Spanish Inquisition, as Torquemada fashioned it, was an instrument to secure the racial and religious uniformity that was a primary concern of the Catholic kings and of Spanish policy for a long time afterward. Two classic works include treatments, hostile, of Torquemada: Henry C. Lea's A History of the Inquisition in Spain , 4 vols. A good brief study is A.
A notorious prosecutor of the Spanish Inquisition who served the Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella by ruthlessly ridding their kingdom of non- Christians during the s. It was Torquemada's task to root out all false converters and punish them with imprisonment, public humiliation, expulsion from the kingdom, or death.
Born in the town of Torquemada, he was the nephew of a Catholic cardinal, Juan de Torquemada.
He became confessor of Isabella, heir to the throne of Castile , while the princess was living in Segovia. In , when Isabella became the queen of Castile, Torquemada followed her to the royal palace, where he became both confessor and adviser. In , Pope Sixtus IV established the Inquisition, an office meant to root out all religious heresy. The first Inquisition court was established in the southern city of Seville.
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In , the pope rewarded Torquemada for his service to the church by naming him to the post of General Inquisitor. Over the next few years Torquemada founded Inquisition courts in Valladolid, Seville, Cordoba, Zaragoza, and Avila, established a council of five to hear appeals, and wrote a set of rules and regulations for religious trials that remained in effect until the eighteenth century.
But the Inquisition had jurisdiction only over Christians; in the meantime the Jews of Spain , also known as Marranos, were accused of heinous crimes, including the notorious murder of Pedro de Arbues, another member of the Inquisition, in Frustrated by his inability to arrest and try members of the Jewish faith, Torquemada decided on a show trial as the most effective way to enhance his authority.
Catalog Record: The age of Torquemada | HathiTrust Digital Library
He had eight Jews rounded up in the town of LaGuardia, and had them tried and convicted of the ritual murder of a Christian child — even though the court had no evidence of the crime and no victim. In , the threat of Jewish ritual murder, as revealed by the LaGuardia trial, persuaded Ferdinand and Isabella to pass the Alhambra Decree, giving all Jews one month to leave Spain; those who remained had to sincerely disavow their faith and convert to Christianity. Torquemada's Inquisition court arrested suspects denounced by a network of spies, and extracted confessions through torture.
The Inquisition seized the property of those it accused, then paraded them through the streets before having them publicly whipped at the doors of a church. Some of the suspects were turned over to the civil authorities for a public execution. He was largely instrumental in bringing about the expulsion of the Jews in His great authority was contested by colleagues and was diminished in some measure by the pope, but he remained preeminent until his death. Torquemada owes his reputation for cruelty to the harsh rules of procedure that he devised for the Inquisition and to the rigor with which he had them enforced.
A Dominican priest and confessor to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella I , who appointed him head of the Spanish Inquisition in , Torquemada was noted for the severity of his judgments and punishments. He was responsible for c.
Tomas de Torquemada All Sources -. Updated Media sources 1 About encyclopedia. Tomas de Torquemada gale. Tomas de Torquemada Tomas de Torquemada served as the Grand Inquisitor in Spain's zealous movement to restore Christianity among its populace in the late fifteenth century. Within the experimentalism that involves the use of these new techniques, notably the friend Manso, in which the introspection of a character created and destroyed by the Narrator foreshadows the "Montpellier" unamunianas.
Separate chapter deserves Fortunata and Jacinta , the most successful novels of the author, in which the fresco of the madrilenian society is broader. History faces of two women in love with the same man, Juanito Santa Cruz, prototype of the gandul gentleman that wastes money that their parents, merchants in the Centre of Madrid, have managed to save.
In this triangle author reflect the national situation in which everything is destroyed without use it: Juanito leaves Fortunata, girl's lower class who would have been happy and useful to marrying someone like her, to marry his cousin Jacinta, which you only attached you a certain affection and, moreover, not can give childrenon the other hand, gives Fortunata. All this is framed in Madrid in the years ranging from "The glorious" to the restoration , years in which, as in the novel, all hopes of national regeneration was foiled.
The complicated plot of this work covers most of the city and reflects one number of social States, much higher than the rest of the galdosiana work. Fortunata and Jacinta. At this stage of their production, begins to gain importance as dream world, which is mixed with the real thing so the protagonists arrive in their introspection, living in worlds apart from the present. Both locos is no longer as those above commented how much people living with a supernatural obsession that blend with your daily living. The figure of the usurer, that has its galdosiana incarnation in Torquemada - character who had already appeared in Fortunata and Jacinta and the forbidden-, gives rise to a tetralogy, comprising the novels titled Torquemada at the stake , Torquemada in purgatory and Torquemada, Torquemada on the cross and San Pedro The protagonist will achieve, to the passage of time, Ascend socially to be Marquis and Senator of the realm, although it continues to be so primitive as in its origins and refuses to any type of internal despite being tormented by spiritual doubts evolution.
This will continue to halma and Halma, continuation of the previous one, both from , and mercy At this stage, the ethical problems posed by the novels are interwoven with the issue of the imagined reality vs.
- Catalog Record: The age of Torquemada | HathiTrust Digital Library.
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The tour of towns close to Madrid is presented as a quixotic journey in which the protagonist cannot help but succumb. Mercy is starring the maid "Benina", which, given the situation of misery that lives her mistress, decides to be begging to keep it. The figure of the maid beggar exalts to be equated with the Jesus Christ in the final pages of the novel. As in previous works, we have here two parallel realities, the made up excuses with which the maid justified before her mistress money obtained alms which will end up crossing in reality and that the moro Almudena, beggar "Benina" friend, tells the protagonist about treasures hidden under the ground which could get through spells, eventually also becoming realityAlthough in very different ways and for different purposes.
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Torquemada, Juan de approximately [WorldCat Identities]
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